To conclude, this chapter has demonstrated that there have been a range of penal choices obtainable to the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scottish courts when dealing with feminine criminals. The courts exercised a fantastic diploma of discretion when responding to the women brought earlier than them as they did with male criminals.
The 1690 Scottish ‘Act Anent Murthering of Children’ directed juries to capitally convict women who had hid their pregnancy and the start of an illegitimate infant that had subsequently died, with or with out direct evidence of murder. Its provisions mirrored these of the 1624 statute in England, specifically that the onus was upon the mother to show her innocence of the crime and that the child had been born lifeless.
Between 1740 and 1834, a complete of seventy nine women have been capitally convicted in Scotland, of whom forty seven (59%) have been executed and 32 (forty one%) had been subsequently pardoned. Of the entire number of 505 executions in Scotland between 1740 and 1834, these 47 condemned women made up 9.3% of the whole offenders who met their destiny upon the scaffold.
Across the period beneath investigation here, the death sentence accounted for only four% of the punishments meted out to women. Although the figure fluctuated slightly and was greater in the mid-eighteenth century but decrease in the early nineteenth century, there was very little urge for food for sending women to the scaffold in Scotland. In six of the nine cases the courts heard how the ladies have been repeat offenders. In four of those instances the ladies had illegally returned from earlier sentences of banishment from Scotland for earlier property crimes. For instance, Elizabeth Paul was first tried in Glasgow in 1778 for theft from a bleachfield.
Despite its adverse implications for the single home servant on this interval, the bearing of an illegitimate child did not drive all women to commit the crime of infanticide. Anne Mackie was a widow with four youngsters from her marriage when she started a relationship with a younger man named James Gray.
She had petitioned the courtroom and was banished from Scotland for life.73 She was apprehended for the same crime and again brought earlier than the Glasgow Circuit Court in 1782. This time she was sentenced to be whipped via the streets of the town earlier than she was again banished from Scotland for life.seventy four On her third look before the court docket for the crime she had stolen four items of material valued at £6 6s.
There had been a range of penal choices available to the Justiciary Court judges in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Scotland to punish convicted female offenders. Like Scottish men, women might face essentially the most serious punishment, the dying sentence, as well as punishments that eliminated them from the realm, namely transportation and banishment from Scotland, as well as jail sentences and corporal punishments.
It’s an actual disgrace as these women confronted significant challenges and restricted entry to schooling, amazingly persevering to produce main contributions in the fields of chemistry, astronomy and biology. Despite the booming beard pattern in recent times it has not gained reputation amongst women. In an intimate state of affairs that is even more so, the place the determine scottish girl rises to eight in 10. Scottish women’s superstar alternative is timeless but some traditional desires have changed. Chivalry is certainly lifeless – only 21% of Scottish women desire a chivalrous man in comparison with 37% who need somebody properly humoured and witty and 35% who are looking for somebody sensitive and compassionate.
On these pages we will be highlighting a few of the Scottish women who made excellent achievements in scientific fields from the 18th century onwards. Dr Esther Breitenbach is Honorary Research Fellow within the School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh. Previously Research Fellow in Social Policy, University of Edinburgh, she has held analysis and educating posts in the School of History, Classics and Archaeology since 2007. From harvesting herring in 1910 to taxi drivers working Glasgow in 1980, Her Century reveals glimpses into the lives of Scottish women over the past 100 years. Many Scottish women were pioneers in their fields of science yet stay largely unknown.
At the age of 30 she had given birth to a different youngster however on this case the father was a married man. When the infant was five months old she had requested him for extra money to pay for a nurse and when he refused she poisoned the child with vitriol. In Agnes’ case the financial implications of getting no male assist have been essential in her motive for the homicide. The theme of illegitimacy as a motive is pervasive in studies of infanticide and that is reflected in the truth that, of the 23 women executed for the crime, their victim was an illegitimate youngster in all however one of the cases.
However, it is the argument right here that this alone didn’t at all times send them to the scaffold. Instead, the chronology of the cases was a vital factor in sealing their destiny.
For instance, there have been no women executed in Scotland for 15 years between 1793 and 1808. In some circuit cities, the incidence was even rarer, a fact that was typically noted by contemporary newspapers. In this video, Science Collections Curator, Catherine Booth uncovers the stories and achievements of two Scottish women scientists — the astronomer Williamina Fleming ( ), and the protozoologist Muriel Robertson ( ). Many Scottish women had been pioneers in their very own fields of research, yet at the moment are largely unknown. Here, we highlight a few of their achievements, as well as some of the challenges which they needed to face.